Popular, or people`s revolts, are no stranger to Egyptians. Over the past century, there have been a total of five popular revolts in Egypt. Some revolts succeeded in removing the regime, others sufficed in partial success moving the country an inch forward, and other totally failed. The most recent of these revolts was against the repressive and controlling regime of Mubarak when people broke through the psychological barrier of fear and revolted against his regime exactly a year ago on January 25, 2011. One icon of this revolution is the burnt out headquarters building of the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP). In this article, Egypt`s history of five popular revolts are reviewed. I think it will be clear to the reader, that although the names change over time that history does indeed repeat itself. Egyptians` three demands over the past century have consistently been: dignity, freedom, and social justice for all.
To understand the origins of this revolution and compare it to recent uprisings in Egypt read more
The capital city of the Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba for over 80 years was known as Medinat Azahara. It was built by Abdul Rahman III, who reigned for nearly 50 years from 912 to 961. At the time, it was considered to be the most advanced city in Europe, with central urban planning, advanced water and irrigation systems, and the streets were lit with endless rows of oil lanterns. Its might and elegance reflected its ruler well who within a matter of a few decades transformed his crumbling kingdom to a powerful centralized caliphate both feared and admired by all its neighbors. In this article, we examine how Abdul Rahman III was able to accomplish this and examine the marvelous city of Medinat Azahara and how it crumbled literally overnight.
Abdul Rahman III was the son of Abdullah and Muzna – a Christian concubine (of royal blood, making Abdul Rahm read more
One of the most celebrated characters in Spanish Medieval history is El Cid. Statues of him portray a powerful warrior on horseback with his sword raised in the air. He is hailed by many Catholic sources as being the first crusader in the Reconquista and fought valiantly for Christianity. A closer look at the facts surrounding El Cid`s history show a profoundly different character. In this article, we explore the real story behind the myth of El Cid.
Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar (1043-1099), aka El Cid Campeador (lord of military arts) was born in a small town north of Burgos, Spain. He was born at an age when the once powerful and rich Muslim empire of Cordoba sud read more
At its height, Alexandria was the largest city in the world. Its peak population was estimated to be slightly over one million inhabitants. Shortly after its founding by Alexander the Great in 331BC, it had replaced Greece as the center of learning, science, and commerce in the Hellenic world. Its scientific achievements were innumerable. At the end of its Hellenic period, the city entered into decline and was forgotten until it was rediscovered by Napoleon in 1798. What they found was a city far from what is described in the history books. At that time, it was a walled village of no more than 5,000 inhabitants. In this article, Alexandria `s glorious past is rediscovered.
Ask the average person in London and he would reply that the London Bridge is over the Thames River connecting the city of London with Southwark and carries the A3 roadway. Most tourists (and some Londoners!) mistake the London Bridge with the London Tower Bridge. Most people believe that the true location of the London Bridge is the next bridge upstream from the London Tower Bridge. In this article, we explore how the true location of the London Bridge is really halfway across the globe!
This bridge was built an read more